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Chicago Manual Style Quick Guide: Home

This page provides guidance on the notes and bibliography system. It includes full citations, shortened citations and bibliography examples. There are links to more complete, detailed guides. A print copy of the most recent edition of The Chicago Manual

How to Insert a Footnote

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Citing Primary Source Materials in CMS

Chicago NB

Chicago NB stands for Chicago Notes and Bibliography.  It does not utilize in-text citation like the MLA.  Instead, writers insert a footnote for any information that is not common knowledge, including direct quotes, paraphrases and summaries.  Each footnote has a superscript number at the end of the sentence in which a source is referenced, a footnote with the same number at the bottom of the page and an entry in the bibliography that appears at the end of the paper. 

Title Page:

According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
  • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
  • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
  • Double-space each line of the title page.

Footnotes

Book 

First Footnote: include the first and last name of the author, the title, publication details within parenthesis and page number(s). 

1. Curt Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and His Secrets (New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1992), 201.

Subsequent Footnotes, include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and the page number(s) (if available). Separate each entry with a comma and end footnote with a period.

2. Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover, 205.

Bibliography Entry:

Gentry, Curt. J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and His Secrets. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1992.

Database Article:

First Footnote, include the first and last name of the author, title, publication details and page number(s) (if available). 

1. Sarah Bahr, "A Primer on 'Judas and the Black Messiah,'" The New York Times, February 16, 2021, C3(L).

Subsequent Footnotes, include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and the page number(s) (if available).  Separate each entry with a comma and end footnote with a period.:

2. Barh, "A Primer." 

Bibliography Entry:

Bahr, Sarah. "A Primer on 'Judas and the Black Messiah.'" The New York Times, February 16, 2021, C3(L).     https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A651900974/WHIC?u=athe67392&sid=bookmark-WHIC&xid=2144e590.

Web Page:

First Footnote, include the first and last name of the author (if available), the title of the web page, title of the website or publisher, date of access and URL.

1. "1921 Tulsa Race Massacre," Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, accessed January 3, 2022, https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre.

Subsequent Footnotes,  include the surname of the author or corporate author(if available) and a shortened form of the title (if more than four words). Separate each entry with a comma and end footnote with a period:

2. Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, "1921 Tulsa Race Massacre."

Bibliography Entry:

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum. "1921 Tulsa Race Massacre." Tulsa History. Accessed January 3, 2022.     https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

Bibliography

Entries are single spaced and in alphabetical order.
Entries are separated by a double space.
Every line but the first line of each entry is indented (i.e. hanging indent).
The examples below include: 1) a web page, 2) a book, 3) an ebook, and 4) an article.