President elected through plurality, not majority. 1 term max (Sexenio), independent electoral commission. Eliminated el dedazo.
Some regimes allow for competitive elections while others carefully control elections to advance specific political interests. Proportional representation systems depend on multimember districts leading to multiparty systems.
Understand how election rules depend on the different objects of regimes. Analyze the rules of electoral systems for legislatures and the existence of democratization. Electoral rules include FPTP, PR, presidential election systems, ballot access and appointment systems in legislative bodies.
Major political parties:
UK: Conservatives, Labour, Liberal Democrats, regional parties, SMDs
Mexico: Morena, PAN, PRI, PRD
Russia: United Russia dominant, SMDs
Iran: no formal party system
China: CCP, no other competitive political parties
Nigeria: PDP, APC, smaller parties, ethnic quotas
Iran: Green Movement (2009 election)
Nigeria: Boko Haram, Movement for Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Movement for Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP)
Russia: Protests over restrictions against LGBTQ+ rights
Systems of interest group representation. Pluralism encourages competition, corporatism means government control on state-sanctioned groups.
Mexico: moving from corporatism to pluralism